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Found 88 results

  1. Blood-Moon

    Ask Blood Moon!

    Hello fellow ponies! Ask me anything you want!
  2. Yes I’d like another Nightmare Moon Episode - but with a twist in case you haven’t read the tag,I want a horror mlp episode,starring if you guessed it,is Nightmare I guess somewhere around this Halloween or when another Friday the 13th happens that Hasbro should have some type of jumpscare or some message at the VERY end of an episode,telling them to prepare for Nightmare will return But when I mean horror,I’m dead serious,I want Nightmare go into some kind of Freddy Kruger/Slenderman mode! Ill let Hasbro do the plot but I want them to release this episode on Friday the 13th at 3 am (no,not for those FAKE 3am videos) now let’s discuss how this show would work,ive gave my thoughts so I wanna hear yours! Good Day!
  3. SkyPie

    Luna's Cutie Mark

    Is that black butt patch apart of Luna's cutie mark or not? First, just the moon disappears. Then, in A Royal Problem, the butt patch goes along with the moon.
  4. Ginger Ale

    Princess Luna's Mind

    Hi everypony, Ginger Ale aka Widowmeiker is here! Ever wonder what Princess Luna thinks and faces in her daily life? Luckily I tried to make one. Sorry for the watermark, had to pay for the upgraded version and I couldn't. All these amazing pictures belong to their very own artists. I just added thought quotes that I wrote and tried to create an empathy as Princess Luna, sorry if I couldn't manage. It even has 1080 hp HD version! Hope you like it! Don't forget to comment, your thoughts are really special for me. Thanks for watching and sharing your precious time. Feel free to comment on YouTube too and give a like or dislike also!
  5. Attention subjects of Equestrain Empire! All Approved Characters, both cast and Original are hereby invited to attend the Winter Moon Festival. This years festival shall take place at Canterlot Castle, both in the Great Ballroom and Castle Gardens. The evening shall begin with the raising of the Winter Moon and end promptly at Midnight. Attached to this invitation is your ticket. Please RSVP in the thread below. Your Princess looks forward to spending the longest night of the year with her Subject. Princess Luna of Equestria. ___________________________________________ Questions about Equestrain Empire and how to join may be found HERE Please post a link to your character's database entry. Roster Princess Luna-NightTerror Nebula(Skycoaster) Trixie-PathfinderCS Soft Star-Mentis Soliloquy Mentis Soliloquy-Mentis Solioquy Twilight Sparkle-Derplight Sperkle Fleur de Lis-Fhaolan Dr. Whooves-Kulstor Alto Tuner-Yoshi89 Princess Celestia-Dwhitethegamer
  6. Shimmering_Starlight

    First time drawing on Paint!

    Hello everypony!!! I decided to try drawing a full body pony on paint I went with my OC Shimmering Starlight hope you like it !!
  7. I was wondering, does it seem, that Celestia, rotates their planet towards, then sun, opposed to her actually moving the sun? It would make more physical sense. The sun will rise regardless, but because ponys are used to Celestia raising it early they will see the sun as rising late.
  8. It is shown that Princess Celestia raises the sun and Luna raises the moon, but they really only shown it where they raise it once, when day/night start. However, the sun is shown to move throughout the day, and I assume the same for the moon, which only makes sense. Do they move it throughout the day/night, or does it move on its own? Pretty much do they only move it once, or continually throughout their time of day?
  9. I've had this theory for awhile now... I think it's only 45% plausible. So, does any(pony)body think Celestia and Luna are lying about raising the sun/moon, for the sole purpose of the throne (much like the pharaohs, of Egypt did)? Maybe they time it... when have we ever seen them do it in the show. except for during the Summer Sun Celebration.
  10. So, I've been playing a ton of Pokemon Sun lately, and something that's been present since Diamond and Pearl is the GTS (Global Trade System), essentially a marketplace where people can offer Pokemon in exchange any other Pokemon, narrowing it down by Gender, Level, ect. In concept, it's a brilliant idea, since finding some Pokemon can be a tedious process, not to mention that some Pokemon are version exclusive so if you don't want to have to buy both versions then this would be a fantastic way to fill up your Pokedex. So naturally people had to ruin it until it's become the deplorable hive of scum and villainy it is today. Nowadays, no matter what you look up and on what game, 99% of requests are written by either idiots or trolls and boil down to "Give me precious diamonds for pennies." "You want a level 1 Charmander? Sure... for a Level 100 Shiny Charizard." "Hey, how about this Butterfree for a Dialga?" "Here, I'll trade you this Magikarp, which you can literally catch by going to any body of water and fishing for two seconds in exchange for your Mew?" Don't believe me? The first time I booted up the GTS in Sun, even knowing how awful it was, I was looking for a Feebas, which have always been hard to find. However, they're potentially at their easiest to find in Sun/Moon, since they're localized to one area, you're told what this area is and I found two in less than an hour. But searching through GTS, the first FIFTY offers all wanted Version-Exclusive Legendaries, Legendaries you can't catch without importing them, an Ultra Beast known as Celesteele or Level 100 Dittos. I stopped looking after that because i wanted to beat my head against something. However, in X/Y, an alternative was introduced that has proven to be better than GTS in almost every way: Wonder Trade. Basically you offer up a Pokemon you've got and then you are randomly paired up with someone to trade with, only seeing what Pokemon you've received after the trade has occurred, so it's entirely random what you'll get. It's not perfect, and there are plenty of cases of people trading common Pokemon hoping to get a rare Pokemon, but there are far more people who are willing to give away good Pokemon through the Wonder Trade. Hell, I bred multiple Feebas' for the sole purpose of Wonder Trading them. Just in Sun, I've gotten a lv.50 Scyther, the fire starter Litten, a Sandyghast, an Axew and, most shocking of all, a Lv. 100 Legendary. Even when I do get common Pokemon like Spearows or Yumgoos, I still get something, which is more than I can say for GTS. Plus, each Pokemon is another unique ID number I can use to win the ID Lottery in-game, which means that no matter what I get through Wonder Trade, I've still profited somehow. Nintendo, will you moderate the GTS already and kick off all the stupid trades? Or, at the very least put some kind of filter on it! It says a lot when a random shot in the dark is leagues better at getting good Pokemon than a market where you can search and request specific Pokemon.
  11. Baity

    Empress of the Night

    Hello everypony. I drew a Nightmare Moon on school because I was totally bored, and since it came out pretty good, I decided to finish it on home and turned into this. Hope you guys like it. (I don't have more a scanner, so yh)
  12. SugarfootWillie

    Visual Art Space Pointillism

    Title says everything, critique is welcome.
  13. Eternity Ending

    celestia and luna

    i drew Celestia and Luna.
  14. After watching season 5 finale a question came to my mind. Would Nightmare Moon be really a terrible ruler? An obvious answer seems to be "yes". After all, she imprisoned Celestia and brought about the Eternal night. But what does that entail, exactly? As we see in Cutie Remark, the lack of sunlight does not kill all the plants, again showing how different the world of the show is from our. Someone might say, "But she might just took over!". The problem with that is, awakening of Nightmare Moon was first thing that happened in the show. So even if all episodes were a showcase of everyday since Twilight came to Ponyville, there still would have passed at least a few months. Enough for plants to start dying. This does not exactly prove that she's not "bad" ruler but certainly makes saying that night eternal would be "horrible" look like a bit of overstatement. Let's look like her motives for becoming Nightmare Moon to begin with. She loved her subjects but felt that they didn't like her in the slightest. Nowhere was said that she would stop caring abut them (well, at least when it comes to matters other than sun-and-moon-raising business). In her castle we don't exactly see anyone unhappy (hell, RD looks like she's very much into her job). The most we see is Rarity being.. busy. I don't know abut you but I would be upset as well if someone who I don't know came up to me while I was doing my job and started talking to me like I'm their friend, and spewing some nonsense. As far as I'm aware there is nothing saying she would be a bad ruler. So, any thoughts?
  15. So I got bored and made a wallpaper with a vector done from the first images opening MLP, I choose Luna for this subject. Thinking of what or how she would paint the night sky while the ponies would sleep and end up missing out on the wonders of the night! Keeping in the colors mostly of purples and a lavenders and throw in the simple moon with a light glow more and along with Luna herself. Done in star brushes and some glitter and just tuned some of em down with a few mist and a plant in the stream of stars in thinking of the Milky way a bit for some adding! Put in the clouds and just reduced em a bit to let the colors of night shine in them or be a frame!
  16. Crecious

    Nightmare Moon

    I just finished this beauty. I hope you enjoy!
  17. Ruhisu

    Xmas Princess Kujavia

    Hello all Since the fandom in the town of Bydgoszcz is preparing to hold a locac Christmas brony meet-up, I was requested to prepare a promo poster for this event. The pony presented on the picture is Princess Kujavia who is the official mascot of the Bronies Bydgoszcz fandom group. The main attraction of the event will be making Xmas hats for MLP plushies in a nice before Christmas atmosphere. My poster for the event without the text. Enjoy
  18. Nightmare Night has already hit these lands. And as a homage, I wrote something in ten minutes because I was bored as heck. Why, you may ask? I don't know, I was bored I guess. "A night to be remembered; dim, portentous, menacing. Gentle wafts turned into vicious blasts of air, threes were plucked from their roots, supernatural thunders branded a clear sky. Confused souls ran and stumbled upon each other, yet none could tell, none could understand what transpired, how grudges from past times unveiled into havoc. As a mere fabric the skies gashed, dismembered constellations covered the sky as the most obscure of voids emerged amongst them, concealing the brightest of moons; the whole crowd impregnated with the stench of apprehension, of utter horror. Whereas catatonic ponies and beasts anticipated the most hideous consequences, a cackle emerged; impudent, loud and pervasive, and subsequently followed an outburst of chaos. A blinding, yet mesmerizing beam slit the skies and embraced the world below. None was prepared, for the embodiment of spite had arrived, overwhelming as a storm, all-powerful as the skies up high and the most devastating tide. And a slender figure arose, its black coat merging with the new darkness that surrounded the firmament; orbs emanating hatred and pride surmounting the fiend, whose svelte figure was protected by unknown metals and was escorted by ethereal mist. The world trembled at each step, the grass and flowers withered with each step, untold atrocities arose from the depts of the world. A thunderous voice pierced the skies, and a warning was dispatched, for the Maiden of the Night had returned. Shall nary forget their deeds; for betrayal does not go unforgiven; for time does not seal the deepest wounds. The Nightmare was free." Enjoy the spooks lads. Have a good one.
  19. I am sure this has been discussed to death.. but if we look at when she was banished and when she returned, it was as if time literally STOPPED for her for the past 1000 years - like she was simply paused and when she returned she went right back to doing exactly what she did the moment she was banished. Celestia seemed to sense the one thing she would try to do is eliminate her and so she appeared to hide. Does this mean that nightmare moon assumes celestia is gone and seeks to rule in her stead? Or without the elements of harmony was luna able to detain her and then go after what was rightfully hers? The story doesn't really fully explain this.. what are your thoughts?
  20. This just occurred to me - in the episode where the sun and the moon are both in the sky - the moon clearly was casting night, blocking the sun from that side, when in our world, the brightness of the sun would simply have covered up the darkness around the moon. WHAT DOES THIS MEEEEAN. And I know the answer is probably just "it's a children's show, it doesn't have to make sense" - but I like to have interesting discussions
  21. (Firstly I'd like to say that I apologize if this is in the wrong section. Still fairly new to this forum ) It seems like the topic of how long a moon is in Equestria has been up for debate for some time now. Some propose it's a year, others say a month, but in the end no one knows for sure. However, I'd like to throw my hat into the ring and try to see if I could figure out how long it is, and I think I may have. So in the first Equestria Girls film, Luna says that the portal will close in 3 days, and won't open again for 30 moons. Then in Apple Family Reunion, Granny Smith says that they have a new family reunion every 100 moons. Of course this just doesn't add up, as there has been too much growth in the apple family for it to occur once every year, and Twilight being stuck in the human world for only a couple months wouldn't really be hugely catastrophic. So that pushes this off the table. However, I think there is a way this all can add up, and that's if there was a complete lunar cycle every 1.7 weeks. This would allow 30 moons to be the equivalent to 1.5 years, and thus allow there to be a large Apple family reunion every 5 years, or 100 moons. The former would make sense because that is a lot of time to be trapped between realms and have it be potentially dangerous for Equestria, while the latter would make sense because it allows time for significant family growth (and physical growth in characters like Apple Bloom) as well as allowing there to be smaller reunions in between then. Although this all is purely speculation, so if you disagree or have a theory of your own let me know!
  22. Okay so after watching all the episodes until "Do Princesses dream of magic sheep?" I just realized somethin that Luna isn't doing, but she can technically do it. If Luna controls the Moon and Stars, she should still be able to control the Sun because technically its a star, am I right?
  23. <Twilight Sparkle> Good evening, everypony! I'm Twilight Sparkle, and I'm going to clear up some confusion on what Celestia and Luna do to "Raise" the Sun and the Moon, based off of what I know from my studies. First off, I've seen some crazy ideas about Celestia and Luna running some big conspiracy... (Ha ha. Verrrrry funny... ) Well, Terra (Not Earth. That's your planet) does spin on it's axis to make day and night. Celestia and Luna don't literally spin the Sun and the Moon around Terra, that would take ridiculous amounts of power! But they do keep the sun and moon rising every day. It doesn't make much sense at the surface... But, allow me to explain a few things. Tidal Braking: First, a moon's gravity causes a tidal bulge in a planet's oceans, and a tiny bit in the land, too. But because the planet spins, that tidal bulge is moved away from the moon, but the moon pulls back on that tidal bulge with it's gravity. So this happens: This is what happens with your Earth and Moon. But our Moon is a little different... It orbits in the opposite direction as Terra spins. See, your moon is in a prograde orbit, mine is in a retrograde orbit. Uhm. I need to explain orbits, don't I? An orbit is when a body falls towards another, but it's going so fast sideways, it misses, but as it flies away, it's pulled back, and it misses again. Your moon is pulled forward, as it goes faster it misses your Earth more and more, so it goes farther away. Our moon is pulled backward, so it's slowed down, and it gets closer to our planet. Or it would, if it wasn't for Princess Luna. Our moon is also in a highly elliptical orbit Normally it's so far out that Tidal Braking doesn't do much. But periodically it swings in close, and when it does, Princess Luna gives it a little boost. If Princess Luna didn't push on it, then in just a few thousand years, it would break apart, and later after that, come crashing down on Terra! The Moon also slows Terra's spin just a little bit every year - just enough to make the day a little less than a second longer. Not much, I know, and honestly it wouldn't make much of a difference if Celestia didn't speed it up again... But this isn't how Celestia "raises the Sun". This is just how Luna keeps the Moon in orbit. And so there you have it, Luna "raises the Moon" we say, by keeping it from falling out of the sky! Which would end all life in the world... How Celestia "raises the sun" is quiet different... Here's what your inner star system looks like: Highlighted in red is Jupiter's orbit. It doesn't get very close to Earth... Now, uhh, this isn't to scale, but it shows how the gas giant planet in our solar system is in an elliptical orbit: (Uhm. It's not very good but you get the idea... ) Remember how the tides on your world pull your moon along, causing it to drift out slowly? Zeus, the gas giant here, pulls Terra along, or pulls it back, depending on where the two planets are in their orbit. But no matter what, left by itself, in just a few dozen years, our world would either crash into the sun, be launched into a craaazy orbit that we couldn't survive, or launched into eternal night by Zeus' gravity, because it swings in so much closer to Terra, than Jupiter does to Earth. It's important to note, that it wouldn't happen instantly. Each time Zeus swings by, it would change Terra's orbit only a little bit, and each time it swings by again, it would change it more and more, until finally either launching Terra into the sun, into a stable, but unsurvivable orbit (like really close to the sun), or into interstellar space and eternal night. Every year, at the Summer Sun Celebration, Celestia has a power surge. That's what I had when I earned my cutie mark: Except, unlike me as a filly, she can control it, and she uses her immense power to give Terra a little push back into it's normal orbit. So because of her, the sun rises and sets every day. Without her, in only a few decades the sun would either become a tiny star, and the world would fall into eternal night, or the sun wouldn't set, and would burn the whole world. And that's how Celestia "raises the sun". And so there you have it! The Truth! See, a little filly wouldn't be able to understand all that. Even lots of grown-up stallions and mares don't get it, so, often it's just simplified to: "They raise the sun and the moon". Any questions? [image credits: hot coco / Sarcastic Very Funny / Only One Second / bad drawing / The Truth / Any Questions?]
  24. Blue Moon

    Ask Blue Moon

    Hi! If you happen to have any questions for me, feel free to ask them here.
  25. Apologies for the missing equations, I am trying to figure out how to post the actual document itself. My Little Planet: Entropy is Tragic Volume One: The Celestial Mechanics of Equestria Introduction I was first introduced to the pony show by a couple of friends of mine who had three little boys and a girl; the whole family loved the show. Now, this was early 2013 so I am a bit of a latecomer to the… um, herd. My own daughter loved the show (and books, and toys), and I shamelessly used her as an excuse to watch it as well. At first, I resisted participating in the fandom, but now that I’ve written an Equestrian orbital physics paper, I guess there’s no turning back. I will start off this (very informal, plain-language) paper by briefly addressing a glaring issue from the show that caused me great mental distress, then explore the original pre-magic state of the Equestrian planetary arrangement, and wrap up by describing the magical process that changed everything and made life on our characters’ home planet possible. But first, a few side notes. Perspective and Giants’ Shoulders Science is not the only thing which fascinates me, about the show or in general. But there is a sprawling megapolis of pony fandom out there already analyzing every last drop out of this show in terms of characterization, narrative, world-building and theming. There may come a day when I can scrape together enough original thought on those subjects to add something worthwhile to the ponysphere, but for now this is where I think I can best contribute. I do really enjoy story-crafting, however, and I haven’t been this into a story since The Lion King. I have read exactly one other work on the physics of the ponyverse, so it gets cited right up front. Check out “How Celestia and Luna "Raise" the Sun and Moon” by Comet Tail on the MLPForum[1]. Comet Tail and I approach the idea of Equestrian orbital mechanics from two different directions, I focus on tidal locking and Comet Tail on retrograde and erratic orbits, a concept I really enjoyed. Last side note: I don’t consider any of this to be head canon. I think there is a difference between the extrapolation of concepts which the canon story directly implies—and even the analysis of those implications—versus real head canon, which implies the introduction of at least some new material into the story, characters, or world. Now don’t get me wrong, I likes me some head canons. I’m just going to limit the content of this paper to those things I consider direct extrapolation from the show’s story material, and straightforward analysis of that, and save the head canon for another edition. The Curious Case of the Backward Moon For all my enjoyment of the story, characters and world of Equestria, and even the scientific and philosophical implications of the world, I probably would never have committed any serious effort to exploring the subject of this paper if not for one blatant violation of sensible orbital mechanics which drove me crazy. And drove me to research. From the first moment I heard that Celestia raises and lowers the sun and Luna the moon, what my brain heard was that Celestia rotates the planet and Luna revolves the moon. Not everyone made this assumption and there are plenty of geocentric model fans out there in the ponysphere, but that is what happened in my head. This assumption stood unchallenged until the ending of the season four two-part premier, where during the Summer Sun Celebration, Princess Luna lowers the moon for all to see, and then Princess Celestia raises the sun in the same part of the sky. It was as if the moon and sun had simply swapped places with each other, with no explanation. This happens a few other times in the show, but always as a cartoony effect easily dismissed as just a fun way to move the story (also, because Discord). But in S04 E02 it is a conscious act draped in a formal ceremony. So, the sun and the moon move across the sky in opposite directions? What does that even mean? After some thought, I decided that this was either the single best geocentric argument in the whole show, or a special event that isn’t representative of a normal day in Equestria. Most of the time, a planet and moon both revolve and rotate in the same direction as the rotation of the star around which they orbit, all either clockwise or counterclockwise depending on if this is being viewed from the system’s ‘north’ or ‘south’. This is called prograde motion; when a body rotates or orbits in the opposite direction it is called retrograde motion. While retrograde orbit moons are present even in our own solar system, this phenomenon would not begin to explain a moon that appears to travel in the opposite direction across the sky as does the parent star from the viewpoint of the planet’s surface. This called apparent retrograde, and it is very different. Regardless of direction, a spinning body tends to rotate significantly faster than anything orbiting it revolves. Take our own planet and moon for example. Earth ‘spins’ or rotates in exactly one day (that is the definition of a day, after all). The moon orbits Earth in about 29.5 of these days, so either way it revolves, prograde or retrograde, it will still appear to travel east-to-west across the sky, because that’s how everything that slow appears to move due to planetary rotation. So what would have to be going on for a west-to-east moving… anything? Anything orbiting retrograde in respect to the direction of rotation of the orbited body will always appear to travel east-to-west, and anything orbiting at all at a lower angular velocity (fewer degrees per unit of time) will also appear to travel east-to-west. Only something orbiting in the prograde direction with a greater angular velocity than the rotation of the orbited body will appear to travel west-to-east. Around Earth, only artificial satellites do this. One simple reason for this is escape velocity. The further away you get from a gravity source, the less linear velocity (rate of motion through space) is required to escape its gravity well. A prograde orbiting body at geosynchronous-plus angular velocity at a distance (orbital radius) typical of moons would simply fly away into space. Or, more likely, into the nearest star. Here’s an example. The equation for escape velocity (which is a misnomer, it should just be ‘escape speed’, because any direction that doesn’t cause a collision will result in escape) is: Where G is the Universal Gravitational Constant of 6.67 x 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2 M is the mass of the body being escaped in kilograms and r is the radius, or distance separating the two, measured center-to-center in meters. The average distance from the center of Earth to the moon is 384,399 km. At this radius, the moon’s orbit traces an ellipse 2.415250 x 109 m in circumference (2πr), or about 1.5 million miles. At exactly geosynchronous orbit, or an angular velocity of 15° per hour (360° per 24 hours), this works out to be a tangential (linear) velocity of 27,954 m/s ((2.348949 x 109 meters traversed) / (86,400 seconds in one day)), which is over 62,000 mph. The escape velocity at that same radius from Earth, a mass of 5.97219 x 1024 kg, is 1,439 m/s, or about 3,200 mph. So just to maintain position in the sky, the moon would have to exceed its planetary escape velocity by over 19 times. To actually move from west to east, it would need to go faster still. While the home planet and moon of Equestria do not need to be exact copies of Earth and its moon for the story world to work, the magnitude of impossibility involved here leads me to the conclusion that the show writers never intended to imply that Luna (or Celestia, for the millennium prior to episode 1) causes the moon to cross the sky in a west-to-east direction, even with telekinetic magic. Yet this is exactly what seems to occur in the season 4 premier, part two. My conclusion is that due to the chaos unleashed by the Plunder Seed vines’ entrapment of Celestia and Luna and their attack on the Tree of Harmony, the planet and moon of Equestria were left in very unusual positions relative to each other and their star. After all, directly after Celestia and Luna’s abduction, both the sun and moon were left hanging together in the sky, causing panic among the populace, and justifiably so. In this scenario Luna simply backed the moon down from its crazy position towards something more normal, followed by Celestia’s moving the planet back to its regularly scheduled rotation. Even this scenario involves Luna temporarily revolving the moon prograde at an insane velocity without shooting it across space like a severed tether ball, but temporary is better than routine. Either this, or the ponyverse really is geocentric. Also, the writers probably just didn’t care, and my daughter wasn’t bothered in the slightest. And then I gave Hasbro some money for a toy for her, so I guess they win. Formless and Void The show’s world building has on more than one occasion implied that without magic, life on Equestria[2] would be difficult or completely impossible. I’ve already mentioned how extremely powerful magic is required to properly rotate the planet and revolve the moon. Both of these things are crucial for planetary life to thrive. The mortal and even non-magical residents of Equestria also seem to have a part to play, as evidenced by such episodes as Winter Wrap-up, Hearth’s Warming Eve and Hurricane Fluttershy. Magic or else considerable effort is necessary or at least really helpful in seasonal procession, cloud creation, and even animal migration and hibernation. To describe what Equestria might have been like prior to the influence of magic, I need to explain two concepts: entropy and tidal locking. Entropy is essentially disorder, with a certain sense of inevitability. When a system is highly organized and complex, it is said to have very low entropy. A brass watch is complex and organized, so it has low entropy, while that same amount of brass melted and re-solidified as a nugget has higher entropy, because it is simple and disorganized. The second law of thermodynamics teaches us that the overall entropy of a system always increases when left to spontaneous (naturally occurring) forces. By investing organized effort, a system can undergo a local and/or temporary decrease in entropy (increase in order), but only at the cost of enough expended useful energy that the overall effect of a larger system is an increase in entropy. The same holds true at the scale of a planet or star system; entropy increases over time. Rotations slow down, satellites either escape or fall into their planets or stars, and ultimately, the star itself dies in one of a number of ways. Of course, the law of entropy does not take into account magic, but more on that in a moment. The second concept, tidal locking is a result of tidal bulging and braking, the subject of some discussion in the piece by Comet Tail which I referenced earlier. As a moon rotates and revolves it tends to flatten a bit due to the gravity of its planet (provided its planes of rotation and revolution are sufficiently aligned). Like any other macroscopic physical object, moons do not have uniform density, so different longitudinal cross-sections will present more or less mass than its average density would present, so this flattening is likewise not uniform. The cross-section that is flattened the most is referred to as the major axis, or simply the ‘bulge’. Once a tidal bulge emerges, it begins to alter the angular velocity of the rotating moon. As the rotation swings the major axis closer and closer into alignment with the planet’s gravitational pull, the angular velocity increases slightly, in a way falling into place. As the inertia of the moon’s rotation then begins to pull the major axis out of alignment, the angular velocity decreases, now fighting gravitational drag. This effect is referred to as ‘tidal braking’. The cumulative effect of repeated tidal braking is that the moon favors its major axis more and more, which in turn increases the severity of the bulge more and more. Eventually, the planet’s pull on the major axis is actually stronger than the force of rotational inertia, and the moon slips into a rotation period equal to its revolution period, thereby ‘tidally locking’ onto its planet. In this arrangement the same hemisphere of the moon is permanently facing the planet as in the case of our own moon. Before a moon has tidally locked to its planet (or a planet to its star), it is possible to roughly[3] approximate the time until it does so with the formula: Where w is the rotation rate (in radians per second) of the satellite a is the average of the perigee and apogee of the satellite’s orbit (in meters) I is the satellite’s moment of inertia (in square meter kilograms), which can be estimated as (0.4)(ms)(R2) Q is the dissipation function of the satellite (no units), which can be estimated as 100 G is the Universal Gravitational Constant mp is the mass of the orbited body (in kilograms) k2 is the tidal Love number of the satellite (no units), which can be estimated as much less than 1 (typically around 0.1 for a mostly solid satellite) R is the average radius of the satellite (in meters) and ms (from the description of I) is the mass of the satellite (in kilograms). Examples of tidal locking are all over our solar system. Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune all have moons tidally locked to them, and Pluto and its satellite Charon are tidally locked to each other. What does this have to do with Equestria? Well, hopefully it’s clear that these two concepts are related. Tidal bulging, braking and locking are all examples of the unstoppable march of entropy on a lunar and planetary scale. As time goes on, orbital mechanics slip from complex arrangements into straightforward ones, which are sadly ineffective at supporting life. A tidally locked moon is not unusual, but an otherwise M-class planet tidally locked to its star would be completely uninhabitable, a blistering super-desert on the sun-ward hemisphere and frozen perpetual night on the other. This is the cataclysm that Celestia and Luna guard their subjects from, absolute extinction across the entire planet. Let There be Magic There isn’t too much detail I can offer as to exactly how the alicorns would have gone about decreasing entropy and resetting the required rotations and revolutions without getting into head canon territory, which I pledged not to do in this volume. But here’s what I have: According to what I perceive the story has told us about its world, this was the original, no-magic state of the Equestrian solar system. A planet locked onto its star, unable to rotate beyond its revolution around the star, unable to support life. A moon not only locked onto its planet Earth-style, but also tidally ‘pinned’ in place between the planet and the star, its revolution in sync with the planet’s revolution. This moon would appear to hover directly above the planet’s surface at exactly the sun-ward pole, casting an unmoving solar eclipse shadow on the surface of the planet’s desert side, creating a small area of shade, assuming a roughly Earth-like size-and-distance arrangement. Solar magic is required to rotate the planet any faster than its one day per year rate, and lunar magic to revolve the moon any faster than its one month per year rate. It seems most likely that once the alicorns (whoever they were and wherever they came from) decided to revive Equestria’s ability to sustain life (for whatever reasons), they would have first begun to accelerate the rotation of the planet, as this is absolutely necessary and the change requiring the most energy. But there’s a problem. The moon is locked on to the planet’s tidal bulge axis too strongly. As the alicorns accelerate the rotation of the planet, the moon tries to match angular velocity to maintain its position relative to the planet’s surface. But the star’s gravity pulls it back, threatening to tear the satellite apart. So the alicorns would then have to exert magical force to slow down the moon’s revolution as the planet continued to spin faster and faster. The moon’s orbit would still be accelerating (from one per year to the order of 101), just not as rapidly or as high as the acceleration of the planet’s rotation (from one per year to the order of 102). With the planet now rotating hundreds of times per revolution and the moon now revolving tens of times in the same time period, key changes begin to happen. The hemisphere-spanning super glacier begins to melt, evaporate, and partially refreeze in a daily cycle, causing intense flooding and erosion. The desert cools and gigantic storm fronts race around the globe as the planet’s rotation and cycles of heating and cooling the atmosphere rapidly change temperature and pressure. The revolving moon now pushes and pulls the emerging liquid water in a tidal bulging sequence of its own, beginning to delineate land from sea. Assuming the planet has the internal structure of one at all capable of sustaining familiar life, the now spinning core begins to assert a discernable geomagnetic field and trap energetic particles into its magnetosphere and plasmasphere. This provides an increasingly strong shield against dangerous particles and electromagnetic radiation from space, restoring some habitability to the planet. After these and many other effects have emerged and stabilized, two last pieces of the puzzle remain, neither of which is assigned a patron alicorn in the show like Celestia and Luna. The first of these is planetary tilt. At full planetary tidal lock, there would be no rotational tilt, no angle separating the planes of planetary rotation and revolution. But tilt is required for seasonal procession, and Equestria definitely has seasons. The final element of a restored living planet is of course biological life. How the various life forms were created or restored must remain purely in the realm of head cannon, however. All we know is that on Equestria all of ponykind, and perhaps other sentient species are active participants in the march of time. Seasons, weather and the life cycles of other forms of life are enabled and guided by mortal hooves. Well, there you have it. I hope you’ve enjoyed my paper and that whatever amount of time you just spent reading it was not wasted. I would (probably) enjoy your comments and questions. Next: Devolution, Natural Selection and Immortality Soon: Talent, Choice and Cute Marks of Destiny Later: Twilight and the Divine Harmony About the Author The author is currently serving as a Senior Scientific and Technical Analyst at the National Air and Space Intelligence Center in Dayton, Ohio. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration from Malone University in Canton, Ohio as well as Associate of Applied Sciences degrees in Intelligence Studies & Technology and in Scientific Applications Technology. He and his wife live in the Dayton area with their daughter, who loves the ponies, especially as toys gathered around a play tea set. [1] http://mlpforums.com/topic/27530-how-celestia-and-luna-raise-the-sun-and-moon/ [2] For the rest of this paper, rather than invent a name for the planet, I will refer to both the realm ruled by Celestia as well as the actual planet which hosts that realm as “Equestria”. Which is meant should remain clear in context. [3] No, really, it’s pretty rough: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidally_locked#Timescale