Quantum Pony

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About Quantum Pony

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    Cupcake
  • Birthday 08/30/1996

My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic

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    Rainbow Dash
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    Male
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    London
  • Personal Motto
    Paul Dirac is the greatest physicist of all time and all time yet to come
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    The underlying science of the Equestria Universe

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  1. Hi @Dreamstar Moonlight Thank you so much for the detailed comment!!! I am really glad you liked it! Yes! You are absolutely right! By classifying magic as a fundamental force of nature, it is very likely that the values of certain fundamental constants of the Equestria universe will be different than ours. And since whether or not a fusion reaction occurs heavily depends on these constants, it is not impossible to happen with a much lighter star. This is absolutely beautiful! This scene settles the question of flat vs spherical earth once and for all! So, in a the Hearth's Warming eve episode, Pinkie (Chancellor Puddinghead) remarked that the world is round, but that didn't really settle the question as Equestria can be disk shaped or spherical. But the video you linked shows the image of (what seems like) Saturn's ring going around it. So indeed! it looks like Equestria IS spherical (which makes the computations above much easier to perform). Ohh I see, indeed then the tides will follow similar pattern as Earth's tides. So far I am constraining myself to the MLP universe from the episodes, but including the IDW comics will be really interesting and enriches what we can say about the structure of the universe. There are some very interesting things in IDW comics from parallel universes to time traveling Observers that one can explore. So here I'd argue that just like how Earth's moon have different phases despite being tidally locked, Equestria's moon can have different phases too. However, since we do not see the 'dark side of the Equestria moon' I would argue they are tidally locked. This would in fact lead to a situation where Equestria experiences all the different phases from waning crescent to waning gibbons in a single day . Ahh! This looks very interesting. I will take a closer look at this and perhaps it will give me a different view on how tidal locking works in Equestria. Thanks for the link!! So based on the model here I'd say it is geocentric. Although now that I think about it, it is possible that whenever Celestia 'moves' the sun, one can imagine the Sun being the massive object in the centre of the solar system and Celestia uses it as a pivot to move the Earth around it. But this would mean Celestia wasnt really upfront with 'moving the sun' bit for the last thousand moons . This is a very interesting question! Following the model here one might be eager to say that a 'moon' is a single day. However, that clearly contradicts many evidences in the show. For example, a thousand moons would then only be a few years. If that is true, Twilight and her friends would have seen the reign of the two sisters when they were younger... So this puts a lower boundary (of a day) on what a moon can be. On the other hand, a moon can't be too long either, since Equestria portal opens once every 30 moons, so its probably not on the same scale as a year. This puts your predictions of 7 to 29 days nicely within the boundary. It is likely that 'a moon' and 'a year' is not trivially defined by the orbit of Sun and Moon around Earth. I will need to do some more thorough research on this before getting back to you . Having a chronology of events that includes all MLP related material is an enormous and amazing task! It requires an abundant knowledge of the show's material and from your responses above I'd say you definitely have such knowledge! I would love to see it when it's completed! (p.s: Would the timeline also cover events happening in parallel universes too? It will probably be just a branch off the main timeline, but some of them (like the opposite/mirror universe) does deviate from the main timeline quite early in Equestria history . ) Thank you for your detailed response! I will think about the length of a moon some more and get back to you !
  2. Not to worry! according to Michio Kaku (physicist that often appear on youtube videos these days), before the sun explodes, humanity would have constructed a gateway to another universe (and thus finally find a real world application for string theory!).
  3. The infinity gauntlet only has power in the universe it is created. For Avengers: Infinity war this would be the universe designated as Earth-199999. Since Equestria is likely in a different universe (or multiverse), they won't be affected at all. Let us assume they are in the same universe. The infinity gauntlet has its own limits and I doubt is has any power over a realm protected by a creature of incalculable power: Pinkie Pie.
  4. Merry Birthiversary!

    1. Quantum Pony

      Quantum Pony

      thank you! :) 

  5. It just so happens that whenever I felt that way, someone else in the room will say something that makes me feel like a complete idiot
  6. I don't think I've met you, but have a happy birthday!!! :yay:

  7. Yup, that could work and it would explain why we always see the same face of the moon (like the 'mare in the moon' back in season 1 ). But if we were to assume Celestia raises and moves the sun, then we can't really have Equestria rotating. Now, if only the moon rotates, there will be a net transfer of rotational energy to Equestria, causing it to rotate about its own axis as well. Which isn't really what we want... But if the rotation of Equestria is very slow (which is likely since the moon is much smaller, making it difficult to move the much larger Equestria), then it probably wouldn't affect Celestia raising and lowering the sun (for example one rotation might be as long as 100 'days') and indeed Equestria would be tidal locked to the moon. Yup I absolutely agree with this point. I would also argue that since magic is clearly a long distance force, its strength will fall off following the inverse square law: F_magic is proportional to (1/d^2) where (d is the distance between the magic user and the object) just like gravity. One can also argue that if magic behaves like the other forces, it would require a greater amount of force to move a heavier object. So indeed, a further sun would be more difficult to move, but so would a denser and heavier sun that is closer. The issue with a sun much further away is that it takes too long for magic to reach it (assuming it does not travel faster than the speed of light). So we can't really have Celestia 'instantly' moving the sun with her magic as it will take a few minutes for her magic to reach the sun and for the light from the sun to return to Equestria. So ponies of Equestria would see a much delayed effect. If this is the case then I do agree with the statement above since the delay for both raising the sun and the moon would be minuscule. In fact, if we loosen up some of the assumptions (like Equestria lunar distance is the same as Earth lunar distance) then quite a few other variables can be more flexible as well such as the size of the sun compared to the moon. However, if we depart from the model in our universe too much, it could have a lot of unwanted variations (like what you highlighted in the last two paragraphs when they are too close to Equestria). So I think you are absolutely right but I guess the Equestria-Moon distance = Earth-Moon distance is a choice and convention I decided to take in this article as to stay as close as possible to the model in our universe. Wow that is quite a detailed analysis! . I havn't really thought about the minimum distance but I absolutely agree with your analysis here. And it does seem like if it is too low in altitude, you wouldn't see a sun 'high above' at certain latitudes. Thank you for your detailed analysis! Hmm,that does seem to work. And as long as Equestria's rotation is slow enough, the duty of bringing force days and night still falls mainly on the two sisters. If it does take say 365 'days' for Equestria to rotate once, the difference in a length of a day would be negligible compared to the model where Earth doesn't rotate. Although I am not sure if it will bring the seasons though... I need to think about this a bit more . But yeah I agree that it could rotate and if it does bring the seasons, it will be a much more elegant model than what I was proposing in the previous reply . And it makes it easier to define a year as well !
  8. That is a very interesting point. Since all four seasons were mentioned in the series, Equestria must experience them. I don’t see any elegant way this can arise from our model, so unfortunately we have to add some extra assumptions to make it work . One of the arguments from traditional geocentric model is by tilting the axis of orbit of the sun instead to simulate the four seasons (however I must say I am not an expert on historical geocentric models ). (The Renaissance Mathematics, 2011) The red circle represents the sun orbiting on the equatorial plane (although in our case this is arbitrary since Equestria does not actually rotate). The solar orbit in blue is tilted to some angle which introduces the variation of sunlight received by Earth throughout the year, hence producing the four seasons. In our model, however, things are a bit more complicated since we insisted that the sun orbits around Equestria once per day. Yet, evidences from the series clearly shows the period of a season is much longer. So here is what I propose. Let’s start at spring where the sun is at the ‘equatorial plane’ and both the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere of Equestria receive the same amount of sunlight. As days gone by, Celestia slowly increases the tilt (ε) of the solar orbit until June where the northern hemisphere receives the most sunlight. Now, the tilt here is with respect to the equatorial plane but the orbit is different than depicted in the picture above. Here, we are actually raising the whole equatorial plane of orbit by an angle ε so the sun is no longer orbiting around the center of mass of Equestria. So we are not really tilting the orbit but raising the whole thing. Celestia will continue to decrease the tilt until September where once again both hemisphere receives the same amount of sunlight. The tilt is decreased further below the original equatorial plane until winter solstice where the northern hemisphere receives the least amount of sunlight. Quite taxing for Celestia to keep track of small variations every day, but I think this model might be able to simulate the seasons we see in the series . I think that's a nice idea . It could also explain the use of base ten when counting even though ponies technically only have one “finger”. Furthermore, most of the contraptions does seem out of place and inconvenient to be invented by ponies like using chalk/pen/quill/spoon with mouth. For this case, and assuming the future Earth model, we can use the old time paradox arguments that you can never change the past and whatever you do in the past inevitably leads to the future. I guess that could work. But I dare not go against will of Celestia. Just look at what happened to Ponileo Ponilei . Sorry for the late reply. Take a bit of time to look into detail the excellent points raised here . I'm still working on the response to the other posts .
  9. That is indeed a feasible model . In fact, this makes the distance between the sun and Equestria much more flexible, allowing the illusion of a very small sun very close to Equestria (just like Vegeta creating an artificial moon in Dragon ball Z ). However, it would be quite difficult for one pony to create a light source that emits enough energy to support all life on Equestria. That is very cool! !!! Given the 1380Wm^-2 luminosity for the Equestria sun in this model, I think temperature variation should be similar to Earth's model. So the only real difference would be the gravitational force exerted by the sun. And indeed, this most significantly affect the tides. If we assume Equestria and Earth sun to have the same densities, the mass will vary 1/R^3 with radius R whereas, the gravitational force has a inverse square power law 1/d^2 for distance d. Keeping R/d constant, we have the force proportional to the radius R. Since a nearer sun is obviously smaller, the Equestria sun exerts a smaller gravitational force than Earth's sun. Since the gravitational force from Earth's sun is twice as weak as its moon, we can safely assume the Equestria sun is exerting a much weaker force than its moon. However, Celestia did mention that it is easier to raise the moon than the sun, which should indicate the sun in heavier. In this case, the gravitational force from the sun would be stronger. Something I havn't really mentioned is the length of the lunar and solar cycles in this model. The solar cycle (being controlled by Celestia) should be the length of a day. I would argue the same for the lunar cycle (which also wasn't really specified in the show). And I think this is also what @SharpWit mentioned . Since on Earth, lunar cycles take around 28 days, the changes in tide in Equestria would be much more frequent (high and low tides on the same day). I think the simulation would yield (approximately) the same result as Earth having twin moons (and of course we need to include Earth's sun in the background but without turning on its gravitational field). Another interesting point is that we assumed Equestria doesnt rotate by itself. This means the absence of Coriolis force, which probably have tremendous effect on Equestria storm system.
  10. That is a very nice point! I havn't really thought about the weather in this situation. For this article I only focused on the solar system after the interference of magic from unicorn/alicorns. But what you suggested could be a nice model before that. Without the interference of magic, the celestial objects would have crashed into each other unless they are in orbit. This could indeed explain the harsher weather condition in Equestria displayed in the show (before Celestia and Luna) and why the unicorns are willing to do every thing in their power to raise the sun, hence putting the celestial objects in a more orderly schedule. Thank you very much for the amazing input !
  11. Hi everypony Throughout the years, I've read several interesting posts such as "How fast was Rainbow Dash when she achieved Sonic Rainboom" or "Comparing scales in MLP universe to our universe". So I thought it would be interesting to do a project on studying how the Equestria solar system would look like. I started this project a year ago but now I finally wrote it in a readable fashion (by which I mean in a way that hopefully makes some sense ). I 'published' this paper here in picture form, but I also attached the original pdf file. Project_MLP.pdf. I hope you guys enjoy it and please do let me know if something I wrote doesn't seem to make sense or is not clear . Any form of feedback would be amazing and greatly appreciated . And let me know what are your thoughts on how the Equestria solar system should look like or any other thoughts you have on the role of Science in Equestria in general. (pictures can be enlarged upon clicking and zooming in in a new window ) (note: This is an updated version of a blog post on the same topic I did a year ago. Now that I looked back, there were a few (huge) mistakes there which I now corrected) Project_MLP.pdf
  12. I will rule as Twilight's second in command. We will first recruit henchponies all across Equestria and build our secret lair in the Everfree forest. The first step of our global domination will be to burn down the tree of harmony (which has always been the biggest threat towards evil). With the tree of harmony out of the way, our invasion will begin at Ponyville. Using Twilight's close relationship with the mane 6 (Starlight filling in as the sixth pony), she is well aware of their weaknesses. We will divide and conquer until Ponyville is ours. With Ponyville captured, Canterlot will formally declare war and we are not strong enough to go head to head with Celestia and Luna. Now, the Ponyville castle will be our base camp and we will rally more ponies to join our cause by teaching them The Magic of Alliance. Our invasion will no doubt attract attention of other villains in Equestria. We will convince Queen Chrysalis to join our cause. She will play a vital role in whats coming next. The wealth of magical items in the castle will no doubt give us an upper hand against the remaining princesses. We will lay siege upon Canterlot, cutting off all outgoing communications (we can't let them contact their allies outside of Equestria). The siege could take weeks if not months. But hopefully by cutting off their food supply, we will throw the capital into chaos. A few weeks into the siege and all the Canterlot guards will be tired and weary. This is where Chrysalis's power comes in handy. She will disguise herself as a royal guard and enter the castle at night. Hopefully, with the power of the magical relics at her disposal and the element of surprise she can keep the princesses contained (for a little while). At the same time, we will launch a surprise attack and (with the princesses preoccupied with chrysalis) take over the castle. Using the time travel spell, we will then send the princesses through time... into the future where they can't return. With the capital under our control, ponies across Equestria will start losing hope. We will take them over one by one (although at this point, most will probably surrender rather than putting up a fight). We will split to two armies, with Chrysalis campaigning south to Appleloosa, which is important as they produce food supplies. I shall campaign East to Fillydelphia, Baltimare and Manehatten. At this point Chrysalis will be eager to reclaim her thrown as the queen of the changelings. Once we rallied our two armies, we will strike against the changling hive. With the changelings (now much more peaceful) subdued, we will once again turn them evil and use them to invade Cloudsdale. Now, with most of Equestria under our control, we will go after the Crystal empire. The Crystal empire however is much further north, making it difficult to attack. Instead, we will let Twilight's little assistance (now known as Spike the Dreadful) to pretend to go there on a diplomatic mission. The crystal ponies will no doubt let him in due to their past. Once inside, Spike will threaten to smash the crystal heart unless Cadence forfeit her throne and open the gates. Due to her love for the ponies (and not wanting the whole city to be swallowed up by snow), Cadence will submit to Twilight's will. Equestria is now conquered. Twilight will forever be known as Twilight Sparkle, Queen of harmony, the undeniable, protector of Equestria, mother of a dragon and the breaker of friendship. But why stop there? With the legion of ponies under our command we shall create an empire so big that it will make the Storm king jealous. The griffins and hippogryphs are hardly a challenge to our magic. The only real threat will be the Yaks to the north and the dragons to the south. But just before our plan for world domination is complete, Twilight will start seeing me as a threat and find some excuse to dispose of me. I will be dragged away by Lieutenant Rainbow Dash and Admiral Rarity while yelling "I was with you since the beginning! How can you do this to me?!!" And just before being executed by General Angel Bunny, I would close my eyes and think "where did everything go wrong...." *End scene* --------------------------------------------------------Roll credits ---------------------------------------------------------------- Mid credit scene: A deranged Pinkie Pie walks out a cave with an evil smirk on her face: "My name is Pinkie, for we are many". And following her were ten-thousand Pinkie Pies. "It is time to make the world pink."
  13. Quantum entanglement is definitely strange. In fact, when physicists talk about quantum mechanics as being strange they are not refering to its probabilistic nature nor a baseball tunneling through walls, they are refering to the strangeness in things such as entanglement . What you said does seem interesting and resonates with something said by Schrödinger : "Quantum physics thus reveals a basic onenes of the universe." Dark energy is mysterious as well. One of the current models is that dark energy is what actually drives inflation and the expansion of the universe . Thank you for the video! . When I posted that figure I didn't really know what dark flow is... The video certainly does provide compelling evidence of its existence and perhaps there is something interesting lying outside the observable universe as well .
  14. (Not really a cosmologist here but learned a thing or two over beers with some pals ) To answer this question, we need to take a quick trip back in history . A few decades ago, astro people found something they couldn't explain - the temperature at different regions in the early universe is really really similar! They looked at the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) which is like a snapshot of the observable universe when it is around 380,000 years old. [1] The color denotes different temperature across different regions in the observable universe. Even though it doesn't look very homogenous, the temperature difference is really quite small. In fact, they are the same within an interval of 0.001 degree celcius. In special relativity, we know that information cannot travel faster than the speed of light. If I do something drastic like destroying the sun, Earth will feel no effect within 8 minutes as that is the time it takes for light to travel here. So cause and effect are not instantaneous but bounded by the speed of light. Similarly, any event within a radius of 300,000km can affect me over the course of one second. But if something is say 310,000km away, it will have no effect on me within one second. For those who are familiar, this describes the concept of a lightcone. Now back to the CMB. The time between the big bang and CMB is roughly 380,000 years. So it turns out (after some computation), if we print out the CMB picture above on an A4 paper and look at two points that are about 1cm apart, they are causally disconnected. That means, since the big bang, events that affect one point in the CMB can in no way affect the other point 1cm away (on the A4 paper). So then how can they have the same temperature o.O? It's like a random group of people going to a party but wearing the exact same shirt even though there is no communication of any sort between them! So it is really unexpected that causally disconnected region on the CMB have the same temperature! This is known as the Horizon problem. The explanation is inflation. Basically, shortly after the Big Bang, spacetime itself is growing at an exponential rate (infact, they are expanding faster than the speed of light), so the small patches with evenly distributed temperature near the time of the Big Bang expands really really quickly, giving us the homogeneous state of the CMB. This is why even though the regions in CMB are causally disconnected, the temperature are the same as inflation stretches everything so quickly that it seems to violate relativity. Thus solving the Horizon problem. So here is the punch line that answers the original question. Inflation shows us that spacetime near the beginning of the universe expands much faster than the observable universe. So one can argue that outside the observable universe today, there is still something as spacetime still exists which is much larger and ever growing. Although, I personally believe it is just empty space outside the observable universe lying happily in the fabric of spacetime. But we will never know since we can't ever see them . Throughout the eons, expansion of spacetime is no longer as fast as during inflation, but it is still happening and spacetime is still expanding. So I believe the current consensus is something like the picture below [2] However, spacetime would not be infinite (yet) but probably millions (10^30 according to some sources) times greater than the observable universe depending on the inflation model you are using. And beyond the boundary of space-time, well... who knows... It is a region without space nor time... . (side note: now that I finished writing it, I felt I could probably had just started with the punchline... but anyways, inflation is too cool a thing not to talk about ) References: [1] WMAP Collaboration (2003) First-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 148 (1): 1–27. arXiv:astro-ph/0302207. [2] Hard Science (2014) What Lies Beyond the Edge of the Observable Universe? https://futurism.com/what-lies-beyond-the-edge-of-the-observable-universe That is an excellent and very tricky question. The idea is that time is relative and depends on the observer. Consider an experiment where scientist A stays near the horizon of a black hole (which is a very massive object) and scientist B stays further away. They each have a stop watch. Now, in general relativity, gravitational force is the result of the curvature of spacetime. So the stronger the curvature, the stronger the force. And mass is what curves spacetime. Since Scientist A is near the horizon of the blackhole, the curvature of spacetime is much stronger compared to scientist B. And general relativity tells us that the clock for scientist A ticks much slower than scientist B. However, for an object like Earth, it is not very massive on a cosmic scale so we can pretty much approximate the spacetime near it as flat. At the boundary of the universe, there can still be planets, blackholes or just vacuum. If it is just vacuum, the curvature of spacetime is probably similar to Earth (as in being flat). So time would pass pretty much at the same pace for a scientist on Earth compared to a scientist in the vacuum at the boundary of the observable universe. Very roughly, the clock ticks 'fastest' in flat space and practically stops when you are near the horizon of a blackhole. Hope that helps